Present tense (Apuntes)

English File. Elementary  By Christina Latham Koening, Clive Oxenden, Paul Seligson /

Third Edition. Descargar

My name´s Hannah, not Anna

“My name´s Bond. James Bond”. Ian Fleming, British writer

 

Present tense

The form of the verb that is used to show what happens or exists now:

The verb in this sentence is in the present

-Present tense Verb BePositive form → full form and contraction (we use contractions

in conversation and in informal writing, e.g. an email to a friend)

I → am. For example: I´m Mae (My name is Mae). I´m sad. I´m here, in class.

He, She, It → is 

You, We, They → are

 

-Present tense Verb Be, negative form  → full form and contraction

Be es uno de los pocos verbos que en inglés puede negarse a sí mismo.

I → am not / ´m not

He, She, It → is not / isn´t

You, We, They → are not / aren´t

 

-Present tense Verb Be Interrogative form  → question form and positive (don´t use

contractions in positive short answers)  or negative short answer

 

Am →  I …? / Yes, I am / No, I´m not

Is →  he, she, it … ? Yes,  he, she, it is / No, he, she, it isn´t

Are → you, we, they… ? Yes, you, we, they are / No, you, we, they aren´t

You can also contract are not and is not like this: You´re not Italian / She´s not Spanish

e.g. How old are you? I´m 36 years old

Con las Wh? questions se puede abreviar: Where´s she from? / What´s her first name?

 

 

After 300 metres, turn right

Imperatives, let´s

Imperatives. Use imperatives to give orders or instructions.

(+) imperatives = verb infinitive

(-) imperatives = don´t (auxiliary) + verb

Turn right! /Don´t turn right!

Park here! / Don´t park here!

 

Add “please” to be polite: Open the door, please

We often use be + adjective in imperatives: Be quiet, Be careful etc.

Don´t use pronoun whith imperatives: Be quiet

 

Let´s. Use  Let´s + verb infinitive to make Suggestions.

Use Let´s not + verb to make negative suggestions: Let´s not wait

Let´s stop at that service station / Come on. Let´s go

 

Present Simple

We use the Simple Present to talk about things that are generally true or that habitually happen.

 

Spelling rules for the third person singular are the same for the plurals

-/s/Most verbs add -s: works

-/iz/Verbs ending in s, z, ch, sh, or x add -es: misses, watches, finishes

-Verbs ending in y (consonant + y), change to -ies

-/z/Exceptions: have – has / go – goes

 

Negative form  → with an auxiliary Do /does

 

Interrogative form  → we need an auxiliary to form questions: Do / does

ASI → auxiliary, subject, infinitive

QASI → question word, auxiliary, subject, infinitive

 

Irregular verbs

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Can you…? Can / Can´t

-Can you introduce yourself?

-Can you spell the word?

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Would you like … ?

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