Present tense (Apuntes)

My name´s Hannah, not Anna

“My name´s Bond. James Bond”. Ian Fleming, British writer

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Present tense

The form of the verb that is used to show what happens or exists now:

The verb in this sentence is in the present

-Present tense Verb BePositive form → full form and contraction (we use contractions

in conversation and in informal writing, e.g. an email to a friend)

I → am. For example: I´m Mae (My name is Mae). I´m sad. I´m here, in class.

He, She, It → is 

You, We, They → are

 

-Present tense Verb Be, negative form  → full form and contraction

Be es uno de los pocos verbos que en inglés puede negarse a sí mismo.

I → am not / ´m not

He, She, It → is not / isn´t

You, We, They → are not / aren´t

 

-Present tense Verb Be Interrogative form  → question form and positive (don´t use

contractions in positive short answers)  or negative short answer

 

Am →  I …? / Yes, I am / No, I´m not

Is →  he, she, it … ? Yes,  he, she, it is / No, he, she, it isn´t

Are → you, we, they… ? Yes, you, we, they are / No, you, we, they aren´t

You can also contract are not and is not like this: You´re not Italian / She´s not Spanish

e.g. How old are you? I´m 36 years old

Con las W questions se puede abreviar: Where´s she from? / What´s her first name?

 

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Present Simple

 

We use the present simple to talk about:

  • habits and routines. Things that habitually happen.
  • things that are always or generally true

 

Spelling rules for the third person singular are the same for the plurals

-/s/Most verbs add -s: works

-/iz/Verbs ending in s, z, ch, sh, or x add -es: misses, watches, finishes

-Verbs ending in y (consonant + y), change to -ies

-/z/Exceptions: have – has / go – goes

 

Negative form  → with an auxiliary Do /does

 

Interrogative form  → we need an auxiliary to form questions: Do / does

ASI → auxiliary, subject, infinitive

QASI → question word, auxiliary, subject, infinitive

 

Irregular verbs

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Can you…? Can / Can´t

-Can you introduce yourself?

-Can you spell the word?

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We often use adverbs of frequency (always, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never) and expressions of frequency (once / twice  a week, on Friday, at the weekend, in the summer, every …) with the present simple to talk about how often we do something.

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Adverbs and expressions of frequency

We use adverbs of frequency to say how often you do something; they go: before all main verbs and → after verb be.

Use a positive verb with → never and hardly ever.

In negative sentences the adverb of frequency goes between the auxiliary and the verb.

-Always

-Usually

-Often

-Sometimes

-Hardly ever

-Rarely

-Never

 

Expressions of frequency / How often do you ….?

They usually go to the end of the sentence or verb phrase  →and sometimes goes at the biginning.

-once

-twice a week, a day etc.

-two or three times a night

-every day, time, week

-in the winter /summer …

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Imperatives

Use imperatives to give orders or instructions.

After 300 metres, turn right. Imperatives, let´s

(+) imperatives = verb infinitive

(-) imperatives = don´t (auxiliary) + verb

Turn right! /Don´t turn right!

Park here! / Don´t park here!

 

Add “please” to be polite: Open the door, please

We often use be + adjective in imperatives: Be quiet, Be careful etc.

Don´t use pronoun whith imperatives: Be quiet

 

Let´s. Use  Let´s + verb infinitive to make Suggestions.

Use Let´s not + verb to make negative suggestions: Let´s not wait

Let´s stop at that service station / Come on. Let´s go

 

 

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Present Perfect

-We use the present perfect when we talk or ask about things that have happened in the past, but when we don´t say when

-We often use the present perfect with ever (= at any time in your life) and never (= at no time in your life).

-We also use the present perfect to talk about something that has recently happened

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-To make the present perfect use have/has

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Present Continuous

We form the present continuous with the present simple of verb to be plus +ing form the verb

Use

We use the present continuous to talk about:

  • things happening now. eg. He´s watching the news on TV at the moment.
  • things happening around now, but not necessarily at the moment. eg Vicky´s travelling to several African countries this year.
  • current trends and changing situations. eg. Fewer people are buying cars this year.

Spelling rules

Notice the spelling rules for the -ing form:

  • for most verbs, add – ing (walk → walking; play → playing; read  → reading)
  • for verbs ending in a consonant + vowel + consonant, double the last letter of the verb and add – ing (sit → sitting; run → running)
  • for verbs ending in e, delete the final letter and add – ing (make → making; write → writing)

 

Verbs + -ing

We add – ing to the main verb. The spelling rules are the same as for the present continuous.

Use

We use the verb + -ing form:

  • as the subject of the sentence. The -ing form is often a noun. eg. Eating a lot of fruit is important
  • after a preposition. I´m very good at playing tennis.
  • after verbs such as → like, love, enjoy, prefer, don´t like, hate, can´t stand, not mind as an object. eg. I love walking in the mountains.

↓↑

like + -ing / would like to

We use like + ing to talk about → a general feeling which is true now.

eg.

Richard likes skiing a lot.

Ella doesn´t like listening to rap music.

 

 ´d like to (= would like to)

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We use ´d like to to talk about a future ambition.

eg.

I´d like to visit Kenya next year.

She wouldn´t like to work in an office when she leaves school.

 

Would you like … ?

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Modal verbs

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There are two important differences between Must and Can / Could and regular verbs in the present simple:

  • There is no third person -s with modal verbs. eg. She must go. I can stay
  • There is no auxiliary do whith modal verbs. eg. I mustn´t lose. He can´t play

-Can you introduce yourself? / Could you… ? -> for past interrogative

-Couldn´t -> for past negative

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  • Have / have to is a regular verb. eg.  I have to go. He has to help. I don´t have to play. She doesn´t have to compete.

 

Use

We use different modal verbs to talk about rules.

  • When something is necessary and an obligation, we use must, have to and mustn´t. eg.  You must be home at eleven o´clock. You have to finish your homework tonight. He mustn´t leave the house.
  • When something is allowed according to the rules, we use can. eg. Yes, you can go to tre cinema on Friday
  • When something is not necessary (but allowed), we use don´t have to. eg. You don´t have to wear a suit at the meeting.
  • When something is not allowed, we use mustn´t and can´t. eg. She mustn´t tell anybody. He can´t play football tomorrow.

 

Bibliography:

Life.  Pre Intermediate. By John Hughes, Helen Stephenson and Paul Dummett.

English File. Elementary  By Christina Latham Koening, Clive Oxenden, Paul Seligson /

Third Edition. Descargar

 

 

 

2 comentarios en “Present tense (Apuntes)

  1. Pingback: English / Verbs | CELN - ¿Cuál es la noticia...?

  2. Pingback: English / Inglés | CELN - ¿Cuál es la noticia...?

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