English / Inglés

English File. Elementary  By Christina Latham Koening, Clive Oxenden, Paul Seligson /

Third Edition. Descargar

My name es David #2017


Grammar and lingüística

The way you combine words and change their form and position in a sentence, or the rules of this. The linguistics is the scientific study of languages

-Gramática, es la parte de la lingüística – ciencia del lenguaje – que estudia los elementos de una lengua, así como la forma en que estos se organizan y se combinan.


Writing / Composición

Pronunciation / Speaking

-Reading / Lecto – Comprensión


British and American English. The same, but different

British and American people speak the same language English, but with some small differences.


American grammar is very similar to British grammar, but with some small differences, especially prepositions. For example, American say See you Friday, but British people say See you on Friday.


A writer´s room. Things


Indefinite Article

The grammatical name for the words “a” and “an” in English

a →  + consonant sound

an → + vowel sound. Before a, e, i, o, u.

Also an hour (h is not pronounced: an (h)our; but a university and a European country (these words are pronounced “yuniversity”, “yuropean”.

We use a/an → for jobs.

another (an + other) → is one word (not an other)


Definite article

the.  the name given to the word → the.

Use the when we know which (board, questions, etc.)

Use the with singular and plural nouns (the board, the questions)

e.g: I have a cat and a dog. The dog is white and the cat is black


Singular and plural

Spelling of plural endings

-The plural of a noun is usually → S

a flower → some flowers

a week → six weeks

a nice place → many nine places


es after → -s / -ce/ -ge / -sh / -ch / -x

bus → buses / dish → dishes / church → churches / box → boxes


→consonant + y → ies

baby → babies / party → parties / dictionary → dictionaries

but → ay, ey, oy, uy → with S

day → days / monkey → monkeys / boy → boys / guy → guys


f / fe → ves

shelf → shelves / knife → knives / wife → wives


These things are plural in English: scissors, glasses, trousers, jeans, shorts, pyjamas, tights, shoes, police.


Irregular plurals

-Some plurals do not end in →S, they are irregular plurals

a man → two men  / a woman → some women

a child → many children

one foot → two feet / a tooth → all my teeth

a mouse → some mice

a person → two people / some people / many people

a sheep → two sheep / a fish → many fish



Stars and Stripes


Pronouns and adjectives

-Subject Pronouns

Subject →in grammar, the person or thing that does the action described by a verb.

Pronoun → a word used instead of a noun that has usually already been talked about. For example, the words “he” “she”, “it”, are → pronouns. Word que se utiliza para reemplazar u ocupar el lugar del sujeto

I (always use capital I)

he, she, it (thing)

you (= singular and plural)


they (for people and things)


Adjective → When we use adjective whith a noun, the adjective goes before the noun

Adjectives don´t change before a plural noun: They´re blue jeans

We can also use adjectives whithout a noun, after the verb be →  e.g He´s strong / It isn´t easy

We often use the modifiers incredible, really, very, quite, a bit, and not very before adjectives → He´s very tall / He´s quite tall / He isn´t very tall



-Demostrative pronouns/adjectives: This / that / these / those

This (singular)  That (singular). We use for things near you (here)

These (plural)  Those (plural) We use for things which aren´t near you (there)


This, that, these and those can be adjectives (this watch) or pronouns (What´s this)



-Possessive Pronouns

Mine, your…


Possessive adjetives

In English, possess agre whith the → possessor. Concuerda con quien lo posee.

Possessive adjetives don´t change with plural nouns.  No coincide, no cambia con el género y número del sustantivo.

I → My
He → His
She → Her
It → Its. Its = possessive.  Be careful whith it´s and its.
You → your
We → our
They → their. Their = of plural people or things. Personas o cosas.

We use possessive adjectives + a noun


Capital letters

– Subject pronoun I

-Days of the week and months

-Names and surnames

-The first word in a sentence

-Towns and cities

Countries, continents, nationalities and languages. The word for a language is usually the

same as the nationality adjective, e.g in Italy the language is Italian

Nationality adjectives  don´t change with plural nouns or pronouns



Positions. Preposition

Below, in a lowerposition than someone or something else

(por) debajo de, abajo

Afterfollowing something that has happened

después de

Beforeearlier than something or someone

antes de/que

Begin, empezar / begin with, empezar por


in on at to
1. parts of the day: the morning, the afternoon, the evening 1. days 1. times of the day: night, midday, midnight, lunchtime 1. for movement or direction. We don´t use to before home: go home
2. seasons: summer 2. dates 2. the weekend
3. months  holiday / business 3. festivals: Christmas, Easter
4. years 4. hour
5. for position: in a flat, an office, a room, and public places etc. 5. for position: at work, home, school, university and public places



Adverbs and expressions of frequency

We use adverbs of frequency to say how often you do something, they go:

Before all main verbs and → after verb be.

Use a positive verb with → never and hardly ever.

In negative sentences the adverb of frequency goes between the auxiliary and the verb.





-Hardly ever


Expressions of frequency. They usually go to the end of the sentence or verb phrase

-twice a week, a day etc.

-every day, time



My name´s Hannah, not Anna

“My name´s Bond. James Bond”. Ian Fleming, British writer


Present tense

The form of the verb that is used to show what happens or exists now:

The verb in this sentence is in the present

-Present tense Verb BePositive form → full form and contraction (we use contractions

in conversation and in informal writing, e.g. an email to a friend)

I → am. For example: I´m Mae (My name is Mae). I´m sad. I´m here, in class.

He, She, It → is 

You, We, They → are


-Present tense Verb Be, negative form  → full form and contraction

Be es uno de los pocos verbos que en inglés puede negarse a sí mismo.

I → am not / ´m not

He, She, It → is not / isn´t

You, We, They → are not / aren´t


-Present tense Verb Be Interrogative form  → question form and positive (don´t use

contractions in positive short answers)  or negative short answer


Am →  I …? / Yes, I am / No, I´m not

Is →  he, she, it … ? Yes,  he, she, it is / No, he, she, it isn´t

Are → you, we, they… ? Yes, you, we, they are / No, you, we, they aren´t

You can also contract are not and is not like this: You´re not Italian / She´s not Spanish

e.g. How old are you? I´m 36 years old

Con las Wh? questions se puede abreviar: Where´s she from? / What´s her first name?



After 300 metres, turn right


Imperatives, let´s

Imperatives. Use imperatives to give orders or instructions.

(+) imperatives = verb infinitive

(-) imperatives = don´t (auxiliary) + verb

Turn right! /Don´t turn right!

Park here! / Don´t park here!


Add “please” to be polite: Open the door, please

We often use be + adjective in imperatives: Be quiet, Be careful etc.

Don´t use pronoun whith imperatives: Be quiet


Let´s. Use  Let´s + verb infinitive to make Suggestions.

Use Let´s not + verb to make negative suggestions: Let´s not wait

Let´s stop at that service station / Come on. Let´s go


Present Simple

We use the Simple Present to talk about things that are generally true or that habitually happen.


Spelling rules for the third person singular are the same for the plurals

-/s/Most verbs add -s: works

-/iz/Verbs ending in s, z, ch, sh, or x add -es: misses, watches, finishes

-Verbs ending in y (consonant + y), change to -ies

-/z/Exceptions: have – has / go – goes


Negative form  → with an auxiliary Do /does


Interrogative form  → we need an auxiliary to form questions: Do / does

ASI → auxiliary, subject, infinitive

QASI → question word, auxiliary, subject, infinitive


Irregular verbs




Can you…? Can / Can´t

-Can you introduce yourself?

-Can you spell the word?



Would you like … ?




Cerebro Bilingue

“Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty” Henry Ford, American




As the Inspector Said and Other Stories by John Escott

We are all guilty by Kingsley Amis. Apuntes

El libro de Mormón. Apuntes

CELN en el Mundo.

La madre de 37 años daba clases de inglés en tiempos de paz.


Al-Jazeera inició sus emisiones en inglés

Premio a un periodista iraní

La Asociación Mundial de Periódicos (WAN, según las siglas en inglés) entregó ayer su máximo galardón, la Pluma de Oro de la Libertad, al periodista investigador iraní Akbar Ganji, que acaba de cumplir en su país una condena de prisión de seis años.

Los 90 años de la Torre de los Ingleses, un símbolo porteño


Descubren cómo hace el virus papiloma para causar el cáncer de cuello uterino

Investigadores del Instituto Leloir lograron explicar cómo hace el virus papiloma humano (HPV, según sus siglas en inglés) para producir el “descalabro” de delicados mecanismos celulares que lleva al cáncer de cuello uterino.

Morrissey : Ringleader of the Tormentors

El show de tango y la fascinación por Evita

Las frases, en idiomas tan variados como inglés, portugués y hasta coreano, se escuchaban un lunes a la noche en las mesas vip de Michelangelo, la tanguería de San Telmo que fue la primera aduana de Buenos Aires.

Maastricht, una muestra donde todo lo que brilla muy posiblemente sea oro

Noel Gallagher, compositor y líder del grupo Oasis, dialogó con LA NACION antes de su show de pasado mañana

Malvinas: acto con británicos

Lord Byron

He is Karol Wojtila

He is Carlos Saúl Menem

My name es David


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