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Grammar and lingüística
-Gramática, es la parte de la lingüística – ciencia del lenguaje – que estudia los elementos de una lengua, así como la forma en que estos se organizan y se combinan.
–Pronunciation / Speaking
-Reading / Lecto – Comprensión
British and American English. The same, but different
British and American people speak the same language English, but with some small differences.
American grammar is very similar to British grammar, but with some small differences, especially prepositions. For example, American say See you Friday, but British people say See you on Friday.
A writer´s room. Things
The grammatical name for the words “a” and “an” in English
a → + consonant sound
an → + vowel sound. Before a, e, i, o, u.
Also an hour (h is not pronounced: an (h)our; but a university and a European country (these words are pronounced “yuniversity”, “yuropean”.
We use a/an → for jobs.
another (an + other) → is one word (not an other)
the. the name given to the word → the.
Use the when we know which (board, questions, etc.)
Use the with singular and plural nouns (the board, the questions)
e.g: I have a cat and a dog. The dog is white and the cat is black
Singular and plural
Spelling of plural endings
-The plural of a noun is usually → S
a flower → some flowers
a week → six weeks
a nice place → many nine places
→ es after → -s / -ce/ -ge / -sh / -ch / -x
bus → buses / dish → dishes / church → churches / box → boxes
→consonant + y → ies
baby → babies / party → parties / dictionary → dictionaries
but → ay, ey, oy, uy → with S
day → days / monkey → monkeys / boy → boys / guy → guys
f / fe → ves
shelf → shelves / knife → knives / wife → wives
–These things are plural in English: scissors, glasses, trousers, jeans, shorts, pyjamas, tights, shoes, police.
-Some plurals do not end in →S, they are irregular plurals
a man → two men / a woman → some women
a child → many children
one foot → two feet / a tooth → all my teeth
a mouse → some mice
a person → two people / some people / many people
a sheep → two sheep / a fish → many fish
There is/was and there are/were
-We use there is / there are -> to say that somebody or something exists. We use there is/was + a singular noun and there are/were + plural nouns.
We often use there is/was and there are/were with -> a/an, some and any. Use some (= not an exact number) and any with plural nouns.
Use some in positive sentences and any in negative and interrogative sentences.
There is is often contracted to There´s. There are is not usually contracted.
When we talk about a list of things we use there is if the first word in the list is singular or there are if the first word in the list is plural.
e. g: In my room there´s a bed, two chairs, and a desk / In the living room there are two armchairs and a sofa.
Countable / uncountable nouns
There are two kinds of nouns in English; countable and uncountable.
Countable: things you can count, e.g. apples. Countable nouns can be singular or plural.
Uncountable: things you can´t count, e.g. butter, meat. Uncountable nouns are normally singular
a / an / some / any
We use a / an with singular countable nouns; a / an = one
We use some in afirmative with plural countable nouns and with uncountable nouns; some = not an exact number or quantity. We use some in interrogative to ask for and offer things → e.g. Can I have some apples, please? / Would you like some coffee?
We use any in negative and interrogative → with plural countable nouns and with uncountable nouns
We use How much … ? → with uncountable (u) nouns
and we use How many … ? → with plural countable (c) nouns
In negative (-) sentences and interrogative (?) we usually use → much and many e.g. I don´t drink much water / Do you drink much coffee?
-a lot (of) → with uncountable and countable nouns for a big quantity. In afirmative (+) sentences we usually use → a lot of
It is also possible to use a lot in (-) negative and (?) interrogative sentences: Do you drink a lot of coffee? / I don´t eat a lot of vegetables
-quite a lot (of) → with uncountable and countable nouns for a medium quantity
-a little / not much → with uncountable nouns for a small quantity
-a few / not many → with plural countable nouns for a small quantity
-none / any (none in short answers) → with uncountable and countable for zero quantity
Pronouns and adjectives
Stars and Stripes
Subject →in grammar, the person or thing that does the action described by a verb.
Pronoun → a word used instead of a noun that has usually already been talked about. For example, the words “he” “she”, “it”, are → pronouns. Word que se utiliza para reemplazar u ocupar el lugar del sujeto
I (always use capital I)
he, she, it (thing)
you (= singular and plural)
they (for people and things)
-Demostrative pronouns/adjectives: This / that / these / those
This (singular) That (singular). We use for things near you (here)
These (plural) Those (plural) We use for things which aren´t near you (there)
This, that, these and those can be adjectives (this watch) or pronouns (What´s this)
When we use adjective whith a noun, the adjective goes before the noun
Adjectives don´t change before a plural noun: They´re blue jeans
We can also use adjectives whithout a noun, after the verb be → e.g He´s strong / It isn´t easy
We often use the modifiers before adjectives → He´s very tall / He´s quite tall / He isn´t very tall
In English, possess agre whith the → possessor. Concuerda con quien lo posee.
Possessive adjetives don´t change with plural nouns. No coincide, no cambia con el género y número del sustantivo.
We use possessive adjectives + a noun
Use comparative adjectives + than to compare two things, people, etc.
Use the + superlative adjective to say which is the (biggest, etc. ) in a group
After superlatives, we use in (not of) + places, e.g the world, the class etc.
– Subject pronoun I
-Days of the week and months
-Names and surnames
-The first word in a sentence
-Towns and cities
Countries, continents, nationalities and languages. The word for a language is usually the
same as the nationality adjective, e.g in Italy the language is Italian
Nationality adjectives don´t change with plural nouns or pronouns
(por) debajo de, abajo
–Begin, empezar / begin with, empezar por
|1. parts of the day: the morning, the afternoon, the evening||1. days||1. times of the day: night, midday, midnight, lunchtime||1. for movement or direction. We don´t use to before home: go home|
|2. seasons: summer||2. dates||2. the weekend|
|3. months||holiday / business||3. festivals: Christmas, Easter|
|4. years||4. hour|
|5. for position: in a flat, an office, a room, and public places etc.||5. for position: at work, home, school, university and public places|
Adverbs and expressions of frequency
We use adverbs of frequency to say how often you do something, they go: before all main verbs and → after verb be.
Use a positive verb with → never and hardly ever.
In negative sentences the adverb of frequency goes between the auxiliary and the verb.
Expressions of frequency
They usually go to the end of the sentence or verb phrase
-twice a week, a day etc.
-every day, time
Manner and modifiers
- We use adverbs of manner to say how people do things
- Adverbs usually go after the verb -> e.g. I speak English very well
- Remember the difference between adjectives and adverbs: I´m a careful driver. (careful is an adjective. It describes the noun, driver). I drive carefully. (carefully is an adverb. It describes the verbs, drive)
modifying adverbs: very, quite, etc.
- We use modifying adverbs with adjectives or other adverbs.
- They always go before the adjective or adverb
Words ending in -ly. Not all words that end in -ly are adverbs, e.g. friendly = adjective -> He is a friendly person.
“Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty” Henry Ford, American
La madre de 37 años daba clases de inglés en tiempos de paz.
Al-Jazeera inició sus emisiones en inglés
La Asociación Mundial de Periódicos (WAN, según las siglas en inglés) entregó ayer su máximo galardón, la Pluma de Oro de la Libertad, al periodista investigador iraní Akbar Ganji, que acaba de cumplir en su país una condena de prisión de seis años.
Investigadores del Instituto Leloir lograron explicar cómo hace el virus papiloma humano (HPV, según sus siglas en inglés) para producir el “descalabro” de delicados mecanismos celulares que lleva al cáncer de cuello uterino.
Las frases, en idiomas tan variados como inglés, portugués y hasta coreano, se escuchaban un lunes a la noche en las mesas vip de Michelangelo, la tanguería de San Telmo que fue la primera aduana de Buenos Aires.